Computer is an electronic machine that processes information—in other words ,an information processor is catch in raw information at one end, stock it before it is ready to work on it, chews and crunches it for a bit, then cut out the results at the other end. All these processes have a name.
Once you understand that computers are about input, memory, processing, and output, all the junk on your desk generate a lot more sense :
Input : Your keyboard and mouse, for example, are just input units—methods of getting information into your computer that it can deal with. If you utilize a microphone and voice recognition software, that is another form of input.
Memory/storage : Your computer perhaps stores all your documents and files on a hard drive: a huge magnetic memory. But smaller, computer-based devices like digital cameras and cellphones use other types of storage like flash memory cards.
Processing : Your computer's processor is a microchip buried deep inside. It works curiously hard and gets fabulously hot in the process. That is why your computer has a little fan blowing away—to stop its brain from overheating!
Output : Your computer perhaps has an LCD screen efficient of displaying high-resolution graphics, and perhaps also stereo loudspeakers. You may have an inkjet printer on your desk too to make a more stable form of output.
Read More : Basic Operations of Computers
What is a computer program?
What makes a computer diverse from a calculator is that it can work all by itself. You just provide it your instructions and off it goes, operating a long and complex series of operations all by itself. Back in the 1970s and 1980s, if you wanted a home computer to do almost anything at all, you had to write your individual little program to do it. Writing the program commonly took more time than doing whatever it was that you had originally wanted to do . Pretty soon, people started selling programs like word processors to save you require to write programs yourself.
Today, most computer users confide on prescribed programs like Microsoft Word and Excel or download apps for their tablets and smartphones without much concern about how they got there. Rarely anyone writes programs any more, which is a shame, because it is considerable fun and a really effective skill. Most people see their computers as tools that help them do jobs, rather than complicated electronic machines they have to pre-program. Some would say that is just as well, because most of us have better things to do than computer programming. Then again, if we all confide on computer programs and apps, someone has to write them, and those skills required to survive. Thankfully, there has been a recent improvement of interest in computer programming.
What's the difference between hardware and software?
Programs are also called software. They are "soft" in the sense that they are not fixed: they can be changed simply. By contrast, a computer's hardware—the bits and pieces from which it is made —is pretty much fixed when you buy it off the shelf. The hardware is what makes your computer powerful; the capability to run different software is what makes it flexible. That computers can do so many various jobs is what makes them so useful—and that is why millions of us can no longer live without them!
What is an operating system?
Suppose you are back in the late 1970s, before off-the-shelf computer programs have actually been assumed. You want to program your computer to work as a word processor so you can bash out your first novel—which is relatively simple but will take you a few days of work. A few weeks later, you tire of writing things and determine to reprogram your machine so it will play chess. Later still, you determine to program it to store your photo collection. Each one of these programs does disparate things, but they also do quite a lot of similar things too. If you were writing lots of different programs, you find yourself writing the same bits of programming to do these same basic operations every time. That is a bit of a programming chore, so why not easily collect together all the bits of program that do these basic functions and reuse them each time?
That Is the basic idea behind an operating system : it's the core software in a computer that handle the basic chores of input, output, storage, and processing. You can think of an operating system as the "foundations" of the software in a computer that other programs are built on top of. So a word processor and a chess game are two different applications that both confide on the operating system to carry out their basic input, output, and so on. The operating system confide on an even more fundamental piece of programming called the BIOS which is the link between the operating system software and the hardware. Unlike the operating system, which is the same from one computer to another, the BIOS does differ from machine to machine according to the decisive hardware structure and is usually written by the hardware manufacturer.
Operating systems have another big benefit. Back in the 1970s, virtually all computers were maddeningly different. They all ran in their own, idiosyncratic styles with fairly unique hardware (different processor chips, memory addresses, screen sizes and all the rest). Programs written for one machine generally wouldn't run on any other machine without quite extensive conversion. That was a big challenge for programmers because it meant they had to rewrite all their programs each time they wanted to run them on different machines. How did operating systems help? If you have a standard operating system and you twist it so it will work on any machine, all you have to do is write applications that work on the operating system. Then any application will work on any machine.
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