Basic Operations of Computers : The questions about the basic operations of a computer may distract you at first check out as it is a versatile machine doing various tasks such as playing awesome games, useful calculations, huge storage, quick retrieval, processing spreadsheets, creating and managing documents, playing songs and movies and what not? So, among this huge list of tasks, a computer operates, how to identify which ones are basic operations of a computer?
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Now we discuss here 5 Basic Operations of a Computer System :
Basic Operations of a Computer System :
Input Unit :
Basic operation of a computer system is inputting. This is the proceed of feeding in the data and instruction to the computer .
A computer system consists of various functional units and Input Unit does the operation of Inputting. By inputting you should understand that it is to send data and/or instructions to the computer in the required format. Input devices are those which are used to enter the Information into the computer. include disks,keyboard or through other computers via network connections or modems connected to the Internet.
The input device also retrieves information off disks ,because Computers work with bits, there should be some system to make data understandable by CPU and also the information produced by CPU must be converted to the human readable form. Input Unit devices take care of encoding.
Devices which are used to input data and instructions are known as Input Devices. Keyboard, Mouse, JoyStick,Light Pen, Microphone,Scanners etc are some examples of input unit devices. The devices that can send data directly to the CPU or which does not require to encode it before sending to CPU are examine Direct Entry Input Devices like scanners. Devices such as a keyboard that require encoding data so that it is in the form a CPU can understand are Indirect Entry Input Devices.
Processing Unit :
The task of performing comparisons and calculations are known as processing.
The unit in Computer System that is superintendent for processing is ALU . ALU is where real execution of instructions takes place during processing operations. All comparisons & calculations are made in the ALU. The data and instructions stored in the primary storage are transferred to it as when needed. ALU may assemble Intermediate results and store it in the memory which is also transferred back to the ALU for the final processing. After execution of processing the final results are send to storage units from ALU.
Output Unit :
This unit takes care of receiving processed information from processing unit and present it to the user in the proper form.
A computer produces results in binary form and output unit does decoding to make it accessible to the users. The devices that can display information from a computer are known as output unit devices. Monitors, Projectors and Speakers are soft output devices whereas plotters ,printers produce hard copy output. Soft copy output is something that is temporary or is accessible only as long as the output device is turned on. Unlike these there is hard copy output which is permanent. The printout in a paper is not lost because the printer is turned off!
Storage Unit :
Before actual processing begin, data & instructions entered to the computer must be stored somewhere inside the computer. Alike , results produced by the computer are needed to be stored before it is passed to the output unit. The intermediate result composed by the computer must also be stored for further processing. Thus the priority of storage Unit in a computer system is vital.
Based on whether the storage device is inside the main machine or not, it can be internal or external storage. Alike , looking at whether the storage device works close with CPU or works as backup media, they can be primary storage or secondary storage. Primary storage is also called primary memory. Secondary storage is known by other names like backup storage or secondary memory. For the storage purpose, a computer system may have various devices like registers, cache, RAM/ROM, flash, magnetic disks, optical disks and so on.
Control Unit :
ALU dose does not know what should be done with the data likewise, output unit dose not know when the result should be displayed. By selecting, interning and seeing to the execution of the program the CU is capable to manage order and direct the operations of the entire system. CU does not operate any real processing on data yet it is known as a central nervous system for the comforts of the computer. It manages and coordinates the entire system.
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