Our logo had us troubled for most of the beginning of Ologon's development. Both name and logo were an issue, as we started from a raw concept, largely based on pure gameplay and some keywords.
Working on the UI, I had most of my design elements scattered around a .PSD file. I was organizing those elements and trying to make some sense, when I decided to have a little coffe break (less coffe, more break). Then, one of my teamates took a look at my screen, and asked about one of the elements, one I was planning on using on loading screens and such. We started talking about how these orbiting lines would circle around while the game loaded, when we agreed that could give us some ideas for the logo.
Quickly, I got it covered on a vector and started testing some font compatibility. While I was working on it, I got the wording "logo" where'd be the games's name, just besides the picture. Then it came to us, that the inner circle could be an O, while Ologo, could be a name. In order to make it sound a little more science-ish, we added an N and got it polished, leading to our current logo.
We had a little bit of a problem, getting people confused about the games's name, wheter it would be called Ologon, or Logon (as, in the logo, we used all caps, people sometimes couldn't tell that the inner circle in the image was the actuall initial O of the name), and that got us somewha worried, though, after the greenlight, we actually left those wories behind.
Now, beeing a little bit technical. Working on the piece, I was worried about making it look like an orbit, as well as make it convincingly techy. That actually had me working on an all blue and white UI, while trying to find the correct amount of techiness and get it into the name, while making it sound round enough. Though I eventually got it covered, the main issue trying on the logo was the NAMING.
We were concerned about making it a verb, as it'd make it really generic, as well as basing it on a characer's name (would make it kinda personal). So we were focusing hard on producing some lore, in order to get some concepts, and therefore, names. Our main problem was that all concepts we generated were actually, in some way, linked, which could mean a cliche name.
When we'd found an abstract name, that had no link to whatsoever character, technology, or anything related to the actual concept of the game, we got our minds free again. And then, we could much more easily, link the game's name to actual lore, making it "real".
I hope I could give, on this post, some hints on naming and branding of a game. There's no really perfect method, but knowing how these things worked for someone, usually helps people figure out their own problems. See you all.