This was the first time since installing and pointing Unity towards Visual Community as my script editor that the tutorials actually had me edit a script. After an initial issue with my 'microsoft account' I got it working and I must say that I like it over MonoDevelop. Layout is cleaner, easier to understand, and easier to look at. The only thing I do need to do is figure out how to get the CTRL - Single Quote Unity shortcut to work with it because that seems like a great little shortcut when it works.
Fixed Update is called just before the Physics engine step.
Public variables are visible and be easily changed in Unity.
To keep public variables organized when viewing them attached to objects in Unity, create a class and use Serialization. I don't fully understand Serialization yet, but I don't doubt it'll be covered later, and if not I'll find out on my own at some point.
No idea what Quaternion Euler is, but again, when it's useful for me to find out I will, or I'll mess around with it and figure it out on my own eventually.